Microwaves and millimeterwaves constitute a current and quasi ubiquitous element of our surrounding and living environment. They are not only used for rapid food heating but also widely known and increasingly exploited for wireless communications, automotive radars, home automation and now with the explosion of data transfer from connected objects. In addition, microwave and millimeterwave dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful technique to non-destructively and non-invasively sense materials. This method exploits the interaction of the electromagnetic field with matter and probes the dynamics of molecule reorientation, predominantly water molecules with its relaxation phenomenon centered around 20 GHz for bulk water, and the variations between the bulk and bounded contributions. Investigations such as macroscale moisture content measurements in agronomy, water detection in soils have been successfully carried out and exploited in industry. Dealing with biological research and biomedical applications, where non-invasive, label-free and contact-less abilities as well as in-liquid measurements constitute important leitmotivs, investigations have been conducted for long with a strong emphasis on microwave imaging for cancer detection, as well as treatments and ablations with localized heated probes. With the advent of microtechnologies and the miniaturization of microwave sensors in association to microfluidic implementations, the non-destructive and label-free analysis of molecules, cells and tissues by microwave dielectric spectroscopy has become possible. The talk will therefore provide a status on the developed sensors and the associated instrumentation, as well as on the reached sensing capabilities demonstrated on different biological and living materials and at different scales, from the molecular, cellular to the tissue level and more recently with the microtissues. It will more particularly highlight the major challenges that needed to be addressed and the remaining ones to face. Based on the illustration of the main achievements, prospects will be given towards a better biological understanding, the early diagnostic of diseases and their treatment, and towards personalized medicine.